Ontologies as the most complex knowledge organization systems
Keywords:knowledge organization systems, ontologies, semantic web, knowledge graphs, linked data
This article is intended to clarify, for those who are not familiar yet with them, the commonalities and specificities of knowledge organization systems (KOS) on the one hand and ontologies on the other, considering their common structural model and their shared purpose as tools assisting in the organization and retrieval of information. In other words its aim is to define what is common and what separates knowledge organization systems from ontologies and why converting former KOSs into ontologies is preferred. In the end interoperability issues are discussed.
ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 (R2010): Guidelines for the Construction, Format and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies (2010), Baltimore, Md: National Information Standards Organization, available: https://groups.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/12591/z39-19-2005r2010.pdf [accessed 26 May 2021].
Biagetti, M. T. (2018) Ontologies (as knowledge organization systems, in Hjørland, B. and Gnoli, C. (eds.) ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization, available: https://www.isko.org/cyclo/ontologies#3 [accessed 25 May 2021].
Bizer, C. et al. (2009) DBpedia - A crystallization point for the Web of Data, Journal of Web Semantics, 7 (3) pp. 154-165, available: Science Direct [accessed 25 May 2021].
Bizer, C., Heath, T. and Berners-Lee, T. (2009) Linked Data – the Story So Far, in Heath, T. Hepp, M. and Bizer, C. (eds.) Special Issue on Linked Data, International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS), available: http://tomheath.com/papers/bizer-heath-berners-lee-ijswis-linked-data.pdf [accessed 25 May 2021].
Budin, G. (2009) From Terminologies to Ontologies – Advances in Knowledge Organization, in TSS 2009 International Terminology Summer School 2009, Cologne, Germany 6-10 July 2009, available: http://www.termnet.org/downloads/english/events/tss2009/TSS2009_GB_TerminologiesOntologies.pdf [accessed 25 May 2021].
Davies, S. (2020) Indexing Language – Vocabulary Control, in KO-ED Introduction to Knowledge Organization, Zoom 22 October 2020, available: https://www.iskouk.org/event-3999164 [accessed 25 March 2021].
Ehrlinger, L. and Wöss, W. (2016) Towards a Definition of Knowledge Graphs, in Martin, M., Cuquet, M. and Folmer, E. (eds.) SEMPDS-2016 Posters&Demos@SEMANTiCS 2016 and SuCCESS'16 Workshop: Joint Proceedings of the Posters and Demos Track of the 12th International Conference on Semantic Systems - SEMANTiCS2016 and the 1st International Workshop on Semantic Change & Evolving Semantics (SuCCESS'16) co-located with the 12th International Conference on Semantic Systems (SEMANTiCS 2016), Leipzig, Germany 12-15 September 2016, available: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1695/paper4.pdf [accessed 25 May 2021].
Frâncu, V. (2003) Multilingual access to information using an intermediate language: Proefschrift voorgelegd tot het behalen van de graad van doctor in de Taal- en Letterkunde aan de Universiteit Antwerpen, available: http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/106319 [accessed 23 May 2021].
Freire, N. (2015) Linking library dat?: contributions and role of subject data, in Slavic, A. and Cordeiro, M. I. (eds.) Classification and Authority Control: Expanding Resource Discovery: Proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, Lisbon, Portugal 29-30 October 2015, Wurtzburg: ERGON Verlag, available: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Freire_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf [accessed 25 May 2021].
Fritzsche, D. M. et al (2017) Ontology Summit 2016 Communiqué: Ontologies within semantic interoperability ecosystems, Applied Ontology, 12 (2), pp. 91-111.
Gruber, T. R. (1993) A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications, Knowledge Acquisition, 5 (2), pp. 199-220.
Hjørland, B. (2008) What is Knowledge Organization (KO)?, Knowledge Organization, 35 (2-3), pp. 86-101.
Hjørland, B. (2015) Are Relations in Thesauri “Context-Free, Definitional, and True in All Possible Worlds”?, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66 (7), pp. 1367-1373.
ISO 25964: The international standard for thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies (2011-2013), NISO, available: http://www.niso.org/schemas/iso25964 [accessed 21 May 2021].
Krötzsch, M. and Weikum, G. (2016) Editorial, Journal of Web Semantics, 37–38 (March) pp. 53-54, available: Science Direct [accessed 21 May 2021].
Mazzocchi, F. (2018) Knowledge Organization Systems, in Hjørland, B. and Gnoli, C. (eds.) ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization, available: https://www.isko.org/cyclo/kos.htm [accessed 23 May 2021].
Miller, G. A and Fellbaum, C. (2007) WordNet then and now, Language Resources & Evaluation 41 pp. 209-214, available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220147965 [accessed 21 May 2021].
Nickel, M. et al. (2016) A Review of Relational Machine Learning for Knowledge Graphs, Proceedings of the IEEE 104 pp. 11-33, available: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.00759.pdf [accessed 21 May 2021].
Olensky, M. (2010) Semantic interoperability in Europeana: An Examination of CIDOC CRM in Digital Cultural Heritage Documentation, Bulletin of IEEE Technical Committee on Digital Libraries 6 (2), available: https://web.archive.org/web/20130620181231/https://www.ieee-tcdl.org/Bulletin/v6n2/Olensky/olensky.html [accessed 21 May 2021].
Ontology (n.d.), Merriam-Webster Dictionary, available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ontology [accessed 21 May 2021].
Ontology (information_science) (2021), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_(information_science) [accessed 21 May 2021 19:55].
Slavi?, A. (2019) Classification in library linked data environment: opportunities and challenges, in Kongres ZBDS 2019 Knjižnice – obvladovalke podatkov?, Maribor, IZUM 25-27 September 2019, available: http://www.zbds-zveza.si/kongres2019/data/05_Slavic_Kongres_ZBDS_2019.pdf [accessed 26 May 2021].
Soergel, D. (2005) Thesauri and ontologies in digital libraries: tutorial, in European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL 2005), Vienna, Austria 18 September 2005, available: http://www.dsoergel.com/cv/B63.pdf [accessed 21 May 2021].
Soergel, D. (2009) Knowledge Organization Systems. Overview, available: https://www.dsoergel.com/SoergelKOSOverview.pdf [accessed 21 May 2021].
Vickery, B. (2012) Knowledge Organization, in Gilchrist, A. and Vernau, J. (eds.) Facets of Knowledge Organization: Proceedings of the ISKO UK Second Biennial Conference, London 4-5 July 2011, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.
Zeng, M. L. (2019) Interoperability, Knowledge Organization, 46 (2), pp. 122-146 (also available: https://www.isko.org/cyclo/interoperability.htm#top).
Zeng, M. L. (2021) Towards interoperability of KOS vocabularies, in ISKO-UK Knowledge Organization Education (KO-ED), Zoom 4 February 2021, available: https://www.iskouk.org/event-4135545 [accessed 26 May 2021] (also available: https://www.isko.org/cyclo/interoperability.htm#top).
Zeng, M. L., Žumer, M. and Salaba, A. eds. (2010) Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD): A Conceptual Model, available: https://www.ifla.org/files/assets/classification-and-indexing/functional-requirements-for-subject-authority-data/frsad-final-report.pdf [accessed 25 May 2021].
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Romanian Library Association
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All articles from RRBSI are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License.